Types of Hypertension: Symptoms | Causes | Prevention

What is Hypertension?

Body arteries, which are the major blood transportation vessels in the body, face a force exerted by the circulation of blood on their walls, known as blood pressure. When due to some reason, this force becomes too high, it causes hypertension.

Blood pressure is donated by two numbers, systolic (pressure when the heart contracts) and diastolic (pressure when the heart expands).

The normal systolic reading is 120mmHg, and diastolic is 80mmHg. Therefore, the diagnosis of hypertension is made based on a measurement ≥of 140 mmHg/90mmHg on two different days.

Types of Hypertension

These are the following types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension

2. Secondary Hypertension

3. We have Isolated Systolic Hypertension

4. Malignant Hypertension

5. Resistant Hypertension

1. Primary Hypertension:

When a doctor examines that your blood pressure is continuously high after three or more checkups, it is essential hypertension. In most cases, people with essential hypertension do not have any symptoms but may experience headaches, dizziness, or nose bleeds.

2. Secondary Hypertension:

When the abnormality is seen in the arteries supplying the blood to the kidneys, then the case of such hypertension is categorized as secondary hypertension. It can happen due to the excessive use of drugs over time. The cases of secondary hypertension are controllable and are mild.

3. We have isolated Systolic Hypertension: 

Blood pressure is represented by two numbers, i.e. systolic and diastolic, and its normal value is 120mmHg/80mmHg.

The case of isolated systolic hypertension occurs when the systolic value increases to 140 or above, but the diastolic one remains normal.

This type of hypertension most commonly happens over the age of 65 and is caused by the loss of elasticity in the arteries.

4. Malignant Hypertension: 

This type of hypertension occurs when the blood pressure rises too quickly and happens to only 1 per cent of people.

When the diastolic pressure goes over 130, then it is a case of malignant hypertension.

This kind of hypertension is a medical emergency and should be treated as soon as possible.

5. Resistant Hypertension:

 When three or more prescriptions of antihypertensive do not help, and the blood pressure is still high, it is a case of resistant hypertension. 

It may occur in 20 to 30 per cent of the patients, and its causes include genetic ones.

Causes or Risk Factors for Hypertension:

There are two types of hypertension causes. Amendable and non-amendable. Amendable risk factors comprise unhealthy diets (too much use of salty foods, high saturation diets, less consumption of fruits and vegetables), lesser physical activity in daily life, excessive use of tobacco and alcohol, obesity and overweight.

Non-amendable causes comprise a history of hypertension, being over the age of 65 and having acute diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease.  

Symptoms of Hypertension:

Hypertension is known as a “quiet killer”. In most cases, the patient who has hypertension does not have the idea of having it because it doesn’t show critical signs or clear symptoms. Due to this, everyone should have their blood pressure measured regularly.

The symptoms of hypertension, when they happen, may include headaches, irregularity in heartbeats, changing of vision, and buzzing sounds in the ears. The severe cases of hypertension include nausea, fatigue, confusion, anxiety, pain in the chest, and muscle tremors.

There is only one way to diagnose hypertension, which is to get your blood pressure measured by a health professional. The process of measuring blood pressure is immediate and without pain.

It is also possible to measure your blood pressure with the help of automated devices, but the assessment done by the professionals is healthier to get an idea about the risks and related problems.

Prevention of Hypertension:

Hypertension control must be a top priority. You’re four times more likely to die from a stroke if your blood pressure is high. You have a threefold increased risk of dying from heart disease. 

  • Eat a balanced diet. To help you avoid hypertension and its problems, choose healthy meal and snack selections.
  • Maintain Body Weight.
  • Please don’t smoke.
  • Limit the amount of alcohol you consume.
  • Obtain Enough Rest.

Key Concepts:

  • Hypertension-most, commonly known as the elevation of blood pressure, is a critical ailment associated with heart, brain, and kidney diseases.
  • According to an estimation, there are 1.28 billion adults between the ages of 30-79 who suffer from hypertension worldwide, two-thirds of which live in countries whose income ranges from low to middle categories.
  • The percentage of patients who are diagnosed and then treated is around 42%.
  • It is an approximation that only 1 in 5 patients recuperates from hypertension which is a critical 21%.
  • Around the world, a major cause of premature deaths is also hypertension.
  • In the category of non-communicable diseases, it’s a global target to minimize the frequency of hypertension by 33% from 2010 to 2030.  
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