Varicose veins are enlarged, twisted, or swollen veins that happen anywhere in the body but most commonly it happens in the legs. It happens when a person standing and walking in an upright position increase the pressure in the lower body increases while the valves in the veins do not work in proper order, so the blood does not flow adequately and causes varicose veins.
Relation between varicose veins and spider veins:
Spider veins are also a type of varicose veins that looks like a spider web, it’s a mild and common variation of varicose veins that cause pain, itching, and discomfort. Most commonly it is found on the legs or face, red or blue color which can also be seen clearly under the skin. It also looks like a sunburst.
Symptoms of Varicose Vein
The most common symptom of varicose veins given as following:
- Rash on skin
- Itching, burning, and sanitation in veins of legs
- Pain while sitting or standing for a long time
- Sores on the legs
- Discoloration of skin
- Twisting and bugling in veins that often causes cords in your legs
- Swelling and muscle cramping in your legs
Causes of Varicose Vein
The main causes of varicose veins are:
1. Blood pressure
One of the most common reasons for varicose veins is increased blood pressure. When the pressure of blood increases and blood collects in veins due to this much pressure causes varicose veins.
2. Weakened and damaged valves
The blood moves towards the heart by a one-way valve present in the veins. In this case when the veins are damaged or weakened blood gets collected in the veins which are the most common cause of varicose veins.
3. Standing or sitting for a long period
While standing or sitting for a long period increases pressure in the veins and our veins get stretched by that much increase of pressure in them which ultimately results in varicose veins.
4. Muscle contractions
Muscle contraction is mostly in your lower leg when the body is standing or sitting for a longer period. At that time elastic veins help the blood to return towards your heart causing the veins to twist or stretch which results in varicose veins.
Risk factor of Varicose Vein
Varicose veins are inherited in many cases and are common in many families.An increase in pressure also causes varicose veins.
Major factors that cause an increase in pressure are as following:
1. Obesity or overweight
Having overweight and obese is the basic reason which causes an increase in pressure on veins.
2. Staying in the same place as an idol
Being inactive or staying in the same place for a long time ultimately results in varicose veins. Because our body needs to be in continuous motion while sitting idle for a long time, mostly when traveling by bus or plane, ultimately increases pressure on veins.
During the period of pregnancy, the amount of blood increases in your body which enlarges veins in your legs because at that time blood supports the growth of the fetus which causes that much increase of pressure in your veins. Hormonal change during that period can also cause varicose veins.
Aging also causes an increase in the risk of varicose veins, as the valves in our body weaken over time, which leaves our physical system infuctional.In the end, instead of blood flowing back into your veins, it gets collected which results in varicose veins.
5. Hormonal changes
As it discussed above, sex is one of the reasons of hormonal changes in the body most likely in female. Hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy, in menopause, or before your period causes hormonal changes in the body that tends to relax the walls of veins that might increase the chance of varicose veins.
6. Leg injury
It’s also an important reason for varicose veins in the body, during leg injury when the body is completely idle, in that case, no movement comes into existence which increases pressure in your lower part causing varicose veins.
Smoking is not the basic cause of varicose veins. Smoking causes an increase in blood pressure, damages blood vessels, and prevents them from working properly, which ultimately results in varicose veins.
Diagnosis of Varicose Vein
The procedure for the diagnosis of varicose veins are:
1. Duplex ultrasound
It’s a type of vascular ultrasound used to check the structure of veins in legs and blood flow in them. Duplex means two that have two types of ultrasound in it. This is painless test examines the valve function and also finds out how much blood flows back into the legs.
Tips and remedies that can be useful:
1. Avoid long periods of standing and sitting
After some time change your place so that your body is in continuous motion and also avoid traveling long and far places.
2. Avoid high heels
Most importantly avoid high heels. Low-heeled shoes are better for your veins and for your legs too which helps in proper blood flow and reduces pressure on your veins.
3. Avoid tight dresses
Don’t wear tight clothes especially around your legs and waist because these types of garments affect blood flow and increase pressure on your veins.
4. Elevate your legs
Elevate your legs daily at least 15 minutes a day for three times above the level of your heart. Bring your body to a relaxed stage and after that putting, 2 to 3 pillows under your thighs helps in an increase in blood flow.
5. Pay special attention to your diet
Reducing your weight and shedding your excess pounds is also helpful in avoiding varicose veins. Used a low salt diet which can avoid blood pressure and swelling which is caused by water retention.
Keep your body in continuous motion. Walking and exercise are also helpful in blood circulation in your body and helps in avoiding varicose veins. The doctor also recommended the appropriate activity level for you.
2. Medical treatment of Varicose Vein
Medical treatment is necessarily important in many cases. However, sometimes varicose veins turned into worse conditions without proper treatment
It is the most common treatment for varicose and spider veins. During this treatment, a saltine or chemical solution is injected into the varicose veins. As a result, these veins will no longer carry blood and other veins take over in their place.
2. Veins stripping
Vein stripping is a surgical treatment where varicose veins are removed from the body.
3. Thermal ablation
As the name indicated, thermal means heat, and ablation means surgical removal of tissues. In this process through laser and radiofrequency energy is used in the treatment of varicose veins. A tiny fiber is inserted and through radiofrequency or laser energy, it destroys the varicose veins in that part.
Microphlebectomy is a surgical method in which special tools are inserted through small cuts which help in removing surface varicose veins.
5. Compression stockings
Compression stocking improves the blood circulation within the body and helps in relieving the symptoms of varicose veins. They are caused by elastic stocking around the legs which squeeze the veins and prevent blood from pooling.
Major complications of Varicose Vein
Although these are rare but major complications caused by varicose veins are following:
Painful ulcers form on the skin in the form of discolored spots. It usually forms near varicose veins, particularly near ankles. If you suspect this form of ulcer in your body, be concerned with your doctor immediately.
2. Blood clots
When the veins become bulge or twisted when you are affected by varicose veins, blood flow in the veins becomes sluggish and slow which ultimately results in blood clotting in the body.
Bleeding is a very rare case due to varicose veins and only minor bleeding caused by varicose veins when the veins may burst into the body very close to the skin due to high blood pressure.